Lucas appears to place them on the rocks to throw it in his father's face. The equations appear to be Lucas' efforts at finding an answer to an undetermined question about the real reason for Terra Nova - control the past, you control the future. Taylor does not remove them as they are the only connection to his son. ("Genesis")
Lucas started carving the glyphs into the rocks long ago. When Taylor discovered them he had the area set as off-limits because of the treacherous waterfalls and that it was in Slasher territory. Skye Tate and her friends, while OTG exploring the area decided not to tell Taylor or anyone else about them as the area was off-limits, later she showed the glyphs to Josh Shannon. Mira and Carter examined the glyphs and found evidence that Skye and her friends had been there.
Some time later, Commander Taylor goes OTG to explore the area around the waterfall and finds more of Lucas' equations engraved into the nearby rocks. As he inspects the remains of a campfire, evidence that Lucas was there, Mira suddenly appears behind him, pointing a sonic rifle at him. She tells him that Lucas is getting closer every day to creating a two-way time portal between 2149 and Terra Nova. ("Now You See Me")